To assess whether, in a cohort of patients with a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetus with estimated fetal weight ≤ 10th percentile, maternal hemodynamics, fetal biometry and Doppler indices at presentation can predict the subsequent development of an abnormal fetal Doppler index or delivery of a baby with birth weight < 3rd percentile.
This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted at a specialist clinic for the management of pregnancies with a SGA fetus at King’s College Hospital, London, UK. The study population comprised 86 singleton pregnancies with a SGA fetus, presenting at a median gestational age of 32 (range, 26-35) weeks. We measured maternal cardiac function using a non-invasive transthoracic bioreactance monitor, as well as mean arterial pressure, fetal biometry, and umbilical artery (UA), fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility indices (PI), and the deepest vertical pool of amniotic fluid. Z-scores of these variables were calculated based on reported reference ranges and the values were compared between pregnancies with evidence of an abnormal fetal Doppler index at presentation (Group 1), those that had developed an abnormal Doppler index at a subsequent visit (Group 2) and those that did not develop an abnormal Doppler index throughout pregnancy (Group 3). Abnormal fetal Doppler was defined as UA-PI > 95th percentile and/or MCA-PI < 5th percentile. Differences in measured variables at presentation were also compared between pregnancies delivering a baby with birth weight < 3rd percentile and those delivering a baby with birth weight ≥ 3rd percentile. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant predictors of birth weight < 3rd percentile and evolution from normal to abnormal fetal Doppler.
In the study population, 14 (16%) cases were in Group 1, 19 (22%) in Group 2 and 53 (62%) in Group 3. Birth weight was < 3rd percentile in 39 (45%) cases and ≥ 3rd percentile in 47 (55%). There was decreased cardiac output and stroke volume and increased peripheral vascular resistance compared with a normal population, and the deviations from normal were most marked in Group 1. Pregnancies with birth weight < 3rd percentile, compared with those with birth weight ≥ 3rd percentile, had greater deviations from normal in fetal biometry, maternal cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, peripheral vascular resistance and UtA-PI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, in the prediction of birth weight < 3rd percentile, maternal hemodynamic profile provided significant improvement to the prediction provided by maternal demographics, fetal biometry, UtA-PI, UA-PI and MCA-PI (difference between areas under receiver-operating characteristics curves, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.06-0.29); P = 0.002). In contrast, there was no significant independent contribution from maternal hemodynamics in the prediction of the subsequent development of abnormal fetal Doppler.
In pregnancies with a SGA fetus, there is decreased maternal cardiac output and stroke volume and increased peripheral vascular resistance, and the deviations from normal are most marked in cases of redistribution in the fetal circulation and reduced amniotic fluid volume
Citation: Roberts LA, Ling HZ, Poon LC, Nicolaides KH, Kametas NA. Maternal hemodynamics, fetal biometry and Doppler indices in pregnancies followed up for suspected fetal growth restriction. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Oct;52(4):507-514. doi: 10.1002/uog.19067. PubMed PMID: 29607557.
Read the complete article: https://obgyn.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/uog.19067